crypto

Speed up Linux crypto operations on the One A110 laptop with VIA Padlock

One Mini A110 subnotebook

OK, so I've been hacking on and testing my shiny new One A110 mini-laptop during the last few days and I must say I'm very happy with it. I'll write up some more details later (check the wiki if you're impatient), but today I want to highlight a very nice feature of this laptop (compared to, for instance, the Eee PC): The VIA C7-M ULV CPU in the laptop has VIA Padlock support.

VIA Padlock is a hardware feature in recent VIA CPUs which provides hardware-accelerated AES and SHA-1/SHA-256 support, among other things. This can be used in Linux (with the proper drivers and patches) to improve performance of dm-crypt, OpenSSL (and all programs using it), scp, sha1sum, OpenVPN, etc. etc.

I have written a quite extensive VIA Padlock HOWTO and benchmarks in the A110 wiki (but all of this will work on other systems which have VIA Padlock, too). To summarize, here are the most important benchmarks:

dm-crypt (256bit AES, cbc-essiv:sha256)

VIA Padlock dm-crypt benchmark

Without VIA Padlock support:

$ hdparm -tT /dev/mapper/hdc2_crypt
/dev/mapper/hdc2_crypt:
 Timing cached reads:   448 MB in  2.00 seconds = 223.47 MB/sec
 Timing buffered disk reads:   22 MB in  3.07 seconds =   7.17 MB/sec

With VIA Padlock support:

$ hdparm -tT /dev/mapper/hdc2_crypt
/dev/mapper/hdc2_crypt:
 Timing cached reads:   502 MB in  2.00 seconds = 250.41 MB/sec
 Timing buffered disk reads:   90 MB in  3.07 seconds =  29.36 MB/sec

The native speed of the SSD in the laptop is 31.01 MB/sec, so there is almost no performance penalty when using VIA Padlock.

OpenSSL

VIA Padlock OpenSSL benchmark

OpenSSL speed benchmark, first line without Padlock, second line with Padlock enabled:

$ openssl speed -evp aes-256-cbc [-engine padlock]
type             16 bytes     64 bytes    256 bytes   1024 bytes   8192 bytes
aes-256-cbc       9187.18k    10572.28k    11054.32k    11179.36k    11218.02k
aes-256-cbc      47955.92k   150619.73k   325730.73k   458320.11k   520520.79k

ssh/scp

VIA Padlock scp benchmark

Without VIA Padlock support:

$ scp -c aes256-cbc bigfile.dat localhost:/dev/null
bigfile.dat                100%  159MB   5.9MB/s   00:27

With VIA Padlock support:

$ scp -c aes256-cbc bigfile.dat localhost:/dev/null
bigfile.dat                100%  159MB  14.5MB/s   00:11

OpenVPN

A real speed benchmark is pending (not measurable easily on 100MBit LAN, will try on a slower link), but as OpenVPN uses OpenSSL it should have roughly the same speedup iff you tell OpenVPN to use AES (it uses Blowfish per default).

Also, there's a measurable difference in CPU load while tranferring large files over OpenVPN: 8% CPU load with VIA Padlock (vs. 20% CPU load without VIA Padlock).

sha1sum / phe_sum

VIA Padlock sha1sum / phe_sum benchmark

phe_sum is a small C program which can be used as drop-in replacement for sha1sum (which doesn't support VIA Padlock yet). Quick benchmark:

sha1sum, without VIA Padlock:

$ time sha1sum bigfile.dat
real    0m6.511s
user    0m5.864s
sys     0m0.412s

phe_sum (with VIA Padlock support):

$ time ./phe_sum bigfile.dat
real    0m1.149s
user    0m0.704s
sys     0m0.424s

All in all VIA Padlock gives you a pretty impressive speedup for many crypto-using applications on Linux, which is especially useful on the A110 mini-laptop (think OpenVPN or scp for mobile usage, and dm-crypt for an encrypted SSD, of course).

Resizing a dm-crypt / LVM / ext3 partition

I've bought a new hard drive for my laptop recently, because I finally got fed up with my constantly-full disk. Having to browse around in $HOME looking for stuff which can be safely deleted just because I want to run fetchmail (and that would fill up my disk) just sucks. So, after getting a cheapo 160 GB 2.5" disk (the old one was 80 GB), I had to move all my data to the new disk.

As I didn't want to re-install from scratch I started with dd'ing the whole disk over to the new one (using a live CD and an external USB hard-drive enclosure). This took pretty long, but went fine otherwise.

The new disk then contained all my partitions (hda1-hda3) and also GRUB in the MBR etc., as expected, but was still only 80 GB in size, of course. So the first step is to enlarge the hda3 partition, which is a dm-crypt volume that contains various LVM logical volumes (for /home, /usr, /var, swap, etc.), each of them using the ext3 filesystem (except for the swap volume, of course).

0. Perform backups, boot from a live CD

Important: If you plan to perform any of these steps, make sure you have recent backups! I take no responsibility for any data loss you might experience. You have been warned!

First off, you should boot from a live CD which has all the tools you'll need, including cryptsetup, LVM tools, resize2fs, etc. You can use the nice grml live CD for instance.

1. Resize partition

This sounds scary (and it is!), but the way I enlarged the encrypted hda3 partition was by first deleting it via fdisk. First, issue the "p" command in fdisk, write down the exact start cylinder of hda3. Then delete hda3. Now create a new hda3 partition which starts at exactly the same cylinder as the old hda3 but is larger, i.e. in my case it has ca. 80 GB additional space.

Your data will still be there if you don't screw up, and the partition is bigger now. Using something like gparted will likely not work as expected, as the partition is encrypted!

2. Resize dm-crypt volume

Nothing to be done, it seems dm-crypt automatically adapts and notices that the partition is bigger. Just "open" the encrypted volume using cryptsetup now:

  $ cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/hda3 foo

3. Resize LVM physical volume

Next step is to tell LVM about the new space. We first resize the LVM physical volume on the foo "partition" to use up all newly-available space.

  $ pvresize /dev/mapper/foo

4. Resize LVM logical volume

Now we can pump the new space into any of the logical volumes (or into multiple ones). I only increased one logical volume, my /home:

  $ lvresize -L +74 GB /dev/vg-whole/lv-home

5. Resize ext3 filesystem

The final step is to resize the ext3 filesystem on the lv-home logical volume (after running the obligatory fsck -n). I first used ext2resize, but that failed horribly:

  $ fsck -n /dev/vg-whole/lv-home
  $ ext2resize /dev/vg-whole/lv-home
  error: Invalid argument: seeking to 3258921205760

This seems to be a known bug, ext2resize apparently cannot handle large disks or something, and as I found out a few minutes later it's pretty much deprecated anyway. The better solution is to use resize2fs:

  $ fsck -n /dev/vg-whole/lv-home
  $ resize2fs /dev/vg-whole/lv-home

That's it. We can now reboot the system from disk and enjoy ca. 80 GB of additional hard drive space. Yay!

Lest We Remember: Cold Boot Attacks on Encryption Keys

Just in case you haven't already read about this... Some researchers from Princeton have published a paper about methods which can be used to attack full-disk-encryption (FDE) schemes.

They have demonstrated that at least BitLocker (Windows Vista), FileVault (MacOS X) and dm-crypt (Linux) are vulnerable to this type of (partly hardware-based) attack scenarios. Quite likely lots of similar other solutions are vulnerable as well.

The main problem is that (contrary to popular belief) RAM does indeed retain its data for a non-trivial amount of time after power is cut (seconds, even minutes or hours if it's cooled down enough), so you can mount some new attacks such as:

  • Get physical access to laptop/computer, cut power to it (the hard way), reboot with a special live CD or USB thumb drive and some special software which dumps the RAM contents to an external disk (or sends it via network). As RAM contents are still there a few seconds after the power is cut, this works astonishingly well.
  • Get physical access to laptop/computer, open it, remove RAM DIMMs while the computer is running, insert them into your own prepared computer and read the RAM contents using some special software.

Yes, all attacks assume that the attacker has physical access to your PC/RAM, in which case you already have several other problems. Still, the new thing about this is that even full-disk-encryption doesn't help much in some cases. You probably shouldn't depend too much on it (but you shouldn't stop using disk encryption either, of course!).

Full paper: coldboot.pdf. There are also some demo videos and pictures.

More coverage at Boing Boing, Bruce Schneier's weblog, Freedom to Tinker, Slashdot, Heise (German), and many more...

Make sure to read the comments of the various articles for more scenarios and possible ideas for how to prevent such attacks. Some ideas include enabling the BIOS RAM checks (which might explicitly erase RAM contents on reboot; that doesn't help in all cases, though) or using coreboot (previously LinuxBIOS) to erase RAM contents at boot-up and/or shutdown.

It's a highly non-trivial issue, though, there's no easy and complete fix so far. The only sure way is to not have your laptop or PC stolen and to not give attackers physical access to your computers.

Serious remotely exploitable hole in GnuPG

Just in case you haven't heard of this yet: GnuPG <= 1.4.5 contains a remotely exploitable security issue which has been fixed in 1.4.6.

You should really upgrade ASAP, as this problem can (theoretically) occur when GnuPG decrypts/checks encrypted email messages/signatures (for example).

If you're running Debian unstable: apt-get install gnupg

Famous Unsolved Codes and Ciphers

Here's a nice list of Famous Unsolved Codes and Ciphers.

Makes an interesting read for a rainy day... Or if you want to give one of the codes a try and solve it, go ahead, and let us know the results :-)

(via joatBlog)

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